Exploring Neopaganism: A Modern Witch's Guide to Finding Your Spiritual Path

Modern Paganism or Neopaganism, encompasses a variety of practices such as Witchcraft, Wicca, Druidism, Celtic Reconstructionist Paganism, Goddess Movement, Nature Worship, Feri Tradition, Kemetism, Norse or Heathenry, Zalmoxianism, Slavic Native Faith, Roman Polytheistic Reconstructionism, Hellenism, Reclaiming Tradition, Fellowship of the Spiral Path, and Church of All Worlds.

These contemporary belief systems draw inspiration from ancient pagan traditions and emphasize a connection with nature and the divine. 

Neo-paganism, is a modern spiritual movement that draws inspiration from various pre-Christian and indigenous traditions.

The term 'pagan' in the past has often been used in a derogatory manner and was even life-threatening to witches. However, in recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in paganism, and neo-paganism has emerged as a diverse and inclusive spiritual path that incorporates various traditions, including modern witchcraft.

Curious about Neopaganism and Modern Witchcraft? Here's what you need to know

Neo-paganism, stone circles hold significant spiritual and ritualistic valueIn neo-paganism, stone circles hold significant spiritual and ritualistic value. These concentric arrangements of stone circles, dating back to prehistoric times, are believed to have been used for various ceremonies and gatherings.

A Modern Witch’s Guide to Neopaganism

Firstly, what is neo-paganism?

Neo-paganism, or Neopaganism is defined by two parts, sometimes hyphenated.

‘Neo’ means ‘new’, and refers to a different form of something that existed in the past. This can be applied to a theory, style, language, or philosophy. 

'Paganism’ relates to two terms; one addresses old and the other new.  

The inclusion of ‘neo’ is used in conjunction with a word to highlight the meaning as part of a revival of an older concept. In this case to differentiate old or archaic paganism from new or neo; modern paganism. 

The Venus of Willendorf or fertility goddessThe Venus of Willendorf is an 11.1-centimetre-tall (4.4 in). Venus figurine or fertility goddess estimated to have been made around 25,000–30,000 years ago.

Whilst Paganism as a concept dates back to the beginning of human life on planet Earth.

It is important to note that the term 'pagan' was not originally used by non-Christians to describe themselves, but rather it was a pejorative term coined by Christians.

Before the rise of Christianity, people did not typically identify themselves by their religion. It was only after Christianity became dominant that religious divisions and labels, such as 'pagan,' emerged. 

The Classical WorldTemple of Garni: The Only Pagan Temple in Armenia. Built in the 1st century AD and dedicated to the sun god, Mithra or Mihr in Armenian.

Pagan Classical Age

To better understand Paganism further investigation in to history is required. The Pagan Classical Age refers to a time in history when Paganism was prevalent and influential.

The use of the word originated in this context during the Roman Empire with the rise of Christianity. It was in these years the Latin term ‘Paganus’, was introduced as a means to distinguish between the common country dwellers and the converted Christians.

The Christians adopted 'paganus' as a derogatory term for polytheists, while in other regions, words like 'Hellene' or 'gentile' were used to refer to non-Christians. The use of 'pagan' as a religious label within the church has had a lasting impact and continues to be associated with the Classical Age associations.

Right up until the 20th Century the term ‘Paganus‘ was despised and derogatory to all Pagan, including life threatening to witches.

What is neo-paganism? Modern Pagan WitchcraftPagans honor the seasons, elements and respect fire through celebration and festivals. 

20th Century Paganism

Neo-paganism is a contemporary spiritual movement that takes inspiration from ancient pre-Christian and indigenous traditions. It seeks to reconnect with nature, honor ancestral wisdom, and celebrate the cycles of the seasons.

Owen Davies author of ‘Paganism: A Very Short Introduction’ comments; 
“It is crucial to stress right from the start that until the 20th century, people did not call themselves pagans to describe the religion they practised. The notion of paganism, as it is generally understood today, was created by the early Christian Church. It was a label that Christians applied to others, one of the antitheses that were central to the process of Christian self-definition. As such, throughout history it was generally used in a derogatory sense.”

What is neo-paganism? Modern Pagan WitchcraftSpiritual Reclaiming

Pagans reclaiming historical practices are individuals who seek to reconnect with ancient traditions and beliefs that were rooted in the natural world.

These practices involve the use of magick and involve deep spiritual interactions with the divine, which are often validated through observations of nature, such as the moon, stars, planets, and the universe as a whole.

These natural elements are seen as sources of messages and guidance for those who follow pagan traditions.

Neo-pagan Traditions

What traditions and practices are considered as neo-pagan? 

  • Witchcraft
  • Wicca
  • Druidism
  • Celtic Reconstructionist Paganism
  • Goddess Movement
  • Nature Worship
  • Feri Tradition
  • Kemetism
  • Norse or Heathenry
  • Zalmoxianism
  • Slavic Native Faith
  • Roman Polytheistic Reconstructionism
  • Hellenism
  • Reclaiming Tradition
  • Fellowship of the Spiral Path
  • Church of All Worlds

Is Hinduism a form of Paganism? Read on to learn the answer.

What is neo-paganism? Modern Pagan Witchcraft
A modern witch incorporates the use of an athamé, a ceremonial knife, in ritual. The athamé is a symbolic tool that is often used for directing energy and casting circles in witchcraft practices.

Neopagan Witchcraft

Neopagan Witchcraft is a modern form of witchcraft that emerged in the mid-20th century. It draws inspiration from various ancient pagan traditions and incorporates elements of nature worship, magick, and ritual.

Neopagan witches often celebrate the cycles of the seasons and honor a variety of deities.

The practice of Neopagan Witchcraft varies among individuals and groups, but it generally emphasizes personal spiritual growth, connection with nature, and the use of magick for positive purposes.

Book of Shadows in the Museum of Witchcraft and MagicBook of Shadows in the Museum of Witchcraft


Wicca is a modern pagan, witchcraft religion. It was developed in England during the first half of the 20th century and was introduced to the public in 1954 by Gerald Gardner, a retired British civil servant.

Gerald Gardner is credited as the founder of Wicca. He wrote several books on witchcraft and helped popularize Wicca in the mid-20th century. Gardner's notable published books are, 'Witchcraft Today', ' The Meaning of Witchcraft' and 'The Gardnerian Book of Shadows'.

Wicca draws upon a diverse set of ancient pagan and witchcraft traditions, and it emphasizes reverence for nature, the worship of a goddess and god, and the practice of magick.

Wiccans celebrate seasonal festivals, perform rituals, and engage in spell work to manifest their desires and connect with the divine. 

Druids celebrating solstice at Stonehenge EnglandDruids celebrating solstice at Stonehenge England


Druidism is an ancient spiritual and religious practice that originated in the Celtic cultures of Europe.

Druids were the priests, scholars, and spiritual leaders of their communities, and they played a significant role in Celtic society.

The exact beliefs and practices of Druidism varied among different Celtic tribes, but they generally involved a deep reverence for nature, the worship of deities, and the use of rituals and ceremonies to connect with the spiritual realm.

Today, Druidism is still practiced by individuals and groups who seek to reconnect with their Celtic heritage and embrace the wisdom and traditions of the ancient Druids.

The Gundestrup Cauldron National Museum of Denmark in CopenhagenThe Gundestrup Cauldron, a gilded silver artifact, was discovered in Denmark in 1891 CE. Although it was found in Denmark, it is believed to have been produced in the Balkans. The intricate designs on the cauldron depict gods and warriors, showcasing the influence of Celtic culture. The cauldron is currently housed in the National Museum of Denmark in Copenhagen.

Celtic Reconstructionist Paganism

Celtic Reconstructionist Paganism is a modern spiritual movement that seeks to revive and reconstruct the religious practices and beliefs of the ancient Celts.

It draws inspiration from historical sources, folklore, and archaeological evidence to create a contemporary expression of Celtic spirituality.

Followers of Celtic Reconstructionist Paganism strive to honor the gods and goddesses of the Celtic pantheon, celebrate seasonal festivals, and connect with the natural world in a way that aligns with the traditions of their ancestors.

Understanding Druids and Celtic Reconstructionist Paganism

What is the difference between Druids and Celtic Reconstructionist Paganism?

Druids are a specific group within Celtic Reconstructionist Paganism.

Celtic Reconstructionist Paganism is a broader spiritual movement that seeks to revive and reconstruct the religious practices and beliefs of the ancient Celts.

Druids, on the other hand, are individuals who follow a specific path within Celtic Reconstructionist Paganism and often take on leadership roles within their communities.

While all Druids are Celtic Reconstructionist Pagans, not all Celtic Reconstructionist Pagans identify as Druids.

What is neo-paganism? Modern Pagan WitchcraftGoddess Movement

The Goddess Movement is a pagan practice that many witches identify with, incorporating rituals and worship of female deities.

It seeks to reclaim and empower women's spirituality, focusing on the worship of goddesses from various cultures and promoting female empowerment and equality.

The movement emerged in the 1970s as a response to patriarchal religious traditions and continues to grow and evolve today.

Some branches of the movement, such as Dianic Wicca, exclusively worship female deities, while others are more inclusive.

The movement is diverse and evolving, influenced by geographical, eclectic, and dynamic individuals.

What is neo-paganism? Modern Pagan WitchcraftNature Worship

Nature Worship is a neopagan religious movement that focuses on the veneration and reverence of nature.

It draws inspiration from ancient pagan traditions and beliefs, viewing nature as sacred and divine.

Practitioners of Nature Worship often engage in rituals and ceremonies that celebrate the cycles of the natural world and seek to establish a deep connection with the Earth and its elements.

Feri Tradition

The Feri Tradition is a modern pagan religious movement that draws inspiration from various sources, including European folklore, witchcraft, and ceremonial magick.

It was founded in the mid-20th century by Victor Anderson and his wife Cora Anderson.

The Feri Tradition emphasizes personal spiritual experience, connection with nature, and the exploration of both light and dark aspects of the self.

It has a strong focus on ecstatic and trance-based practices, and its practitioners often engage in ritual magick and energy work.

Coloured relief inside Hatshepsut's Temple, Deir El Bahri, EgyptColoured relief inside Hatshepsut's Temple, Deir El Bahri, Egypt. 


The Ancient Egyptians were of course pagans; honoring and worshiping multiple Gods, Goddesses and deities.

Egyptian Neopaganism is also known as Kemetism, a modern spiritual movement that seeks to revive and reconstruct the ancient pagan practices of Ancient Egypt.

These practices include beliefs in past lives, the use of spells and divination, worship of nature and multiple gods and goddesses, connection with power animals, reverence for the elements, and exploration of the shadow self.

By embracing these ancient traditions, Egyptian Neopagans aim to connect with the rich and vibrant culture of Ancient Egypt.

Ásatrú religion wedding Thingvellir, Iceland Ásatrú religion wedding Thingvellir, Iceland

Norse or Heathenry

Norse, Heathenry or Ásatrú, is a modern-day revival of the ancient Norse religion and spiritual practices.

It is a polytheistic belief system that honors the gods and goddesses of the Norse pantheon, such as Odin, Thor, and Freya.

Followers of Norse or Heathenry seek to connect with their ancestral roots and live in harmony with nature and the divine.

Rituals, ceremonies, and storytelling play a significant role in this spiritual tradition.

Dacian Sacred Fire ceremonyZalmoxianism sacred fire ceremony.


Zalmoxianism Neopaganism is a modern religious movement that draws inspiration from the ancient Zalmoxis cult of the Dacians, an ancient Thracian people.

It is a revival of the pre-Christian beliefs and practices of the Dacians, incorporating elements of folklore, mythology, and nature worship.

Zalmoxianism Neopaganism seeks to reconnect with the spiritual traditions of the past and promote a reverence for nature and the divine.

Slavic Native Faith - The best known and dramatic among numerous Slavic pagan fire ritual - jumping over the bonfire on the Kupala Night.
One of the most well-known and captivating Slavic pagan fire rituals is the tradition of jumping over a bonfire during the Kupala Night.

Slavic Native Faith

Slavic Native Faith neo-pagans are individuals who follow a modern revival of the ancient Slavic pagan traditions and beliefs.

They seek to reconnect with the pre-Christian spiritual practices of the Slavic peoples, honoring their gods and goddesses, and celebrating nature and the cycles of the seasons.

This movement has gained popularity in recent years as a way for people to reconnect with their ancestral roots and explore alternative spiritual paths.

Botticelli's ‘Birth Of Venus’ - Pagan PaintingBotticelli's ‘Birth Of Venus’, featured above depicts ancient Pagan religion. Worship of ancient Roman gods, and the magickal influences of pagan deity.

Roman Polytheistic Reconstructionism

Roman Polytheistic Reconstructionism is a modern religious movement that seeks to revive and reconstruct the ancient Roman religion.

Neo-pagans who follow this belief system aim to recreate the rituals, practices, and beliefs of the ancient Romans.

They draw inspiration from historical sources, such as ancient texts and archaeological findings, to inform their religious practices and view.

Hellenism - Winged Victory of Samothrace.Winged Victory of Samothrace. This magnificent artwork was created as an offering to the gods and served as a tribute to the goddess Victory. 


Hellenism refers to the spread of Greek culture, language, and influence during the Hellenistic period, which lasted from the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BCE to the Roman conquest of Greece in 146 BCE.

This period saw the blending of Greek and Eastern cultures, resulting in a rich and diverse civilization that had a lasting impact on the arts, sciences, philosophy, and politics of the ancient world.

Hellenism neo-pagans are individuals who follow a modern revival of ancient Greek religious practices and beliefs.

They draw inspiration from the polytheistic religion of ancient Greece, worshipping the gods and goddesses of the Greek pantheon and engaging in rituals and ceremonies that reflect the traditions of the past.

Hellenism neo-pagans seek to connect with the spirituality and wisdom of ancient Greece in a contemporary context.

Activist group W.I.T.C.H. established in 1968W.I.T.C.H Socialist Activist Feminist Pagans

Reclaiming Tradition

The activist group W.I.T.C.H identifies as neo-pagans. They combine elements of witchcraft and feminism in their activism and beliefs.

W.I.T.C.H, which stands for Women's International Terrorist Conspiracy from Hell, was an activist group founded in 1968 by socialist feminists. 

They aimed to challenge and dismantle patriarchal systems and advocate for broader social change.

W.I.T.C.H represents a range of feminist ideologies, including modern Paganism and the concept of reclaiming power and autonomy. 

Fellowship of the Spiral Path

The Fellowship of the Spiral Path is a modern pagan tradition that emerged in the late 20th century. It was founded in Northern California, particularly in the San Francisco Bay Area, which has always been a supportive environment for the development of new religious ideas and organizations.

The Fellowship of the Spiral Path was formed in 1986 as a reorganization of the Center for Non-Traditional Religion (CNTR).

It aims to offer worship and activities for both women and men, incorporating elements of the Old Religion.

Church of All Worlds

The Church of All Worlds is a religious organization that was founded in 1962 in the United States by Oberon Zell-Ravenheart and his wife Morning Glory Zell-Ravenheart.

It is based on a combination of neopagan beliefs, environmentalism, and the worship of nature.

The Church of All Worlds promotes ecological awareness, personal growth, and the worship of the Earth as a sacred entity. It has been influential in the development of modern pagan and earth-centered spiritual movements.

What is neo-paganism? Modern Pagan WitchcraftHindu God of many faces; Brahma

Is Hinduism Pagan?

Paganism refers to a religion which includes Gods and Goddesses; polytheism. Polytheism often characterizes virtually all religions other than Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, which share a common tradition of monotheism, the belief in one God.

Is Hinduism a form of Paganism?

The answer is No, the why may surprise you.

Hinduism is not considered pagan. Hinduism is a complex and diverse religion with its own unique beliefs, practices, and traditions.

Paganism refers to a broad category of religions that are typically nature-based and polytheistic, whereas in Hindu philosophy, Brahman is considered the underlying, unchanging reality that pervades the entire universe.

Brahman is often described as formless, infinite, and beyond human comprehension. Some philosophical schools within Hinduism emphasize the idea that all the various deities are manifestations or aspects of this ultimate reality. This concept is known as 'Brahman as the ultimate reality.'

As reported in the Huffpost; “American law-makers recently characterized Hinduism as pagan. This raises the question: is Hinduism a pagan religion?”

“Hinduism at first blush appears to conform to paganism. It seems to worship many gods and seems to do so by worshipping different images. It thus comes across as polytheistic and idolatrous and therefore pagan. This perception fuels the missionary zeal of the Abrahamic religions to destroy such paganism.”


“There is only one problem with this scenario. It is based on a false presumption. It is true that there are many gods in Hinduism and that it abounds in image worship, but while these various gods are considered different gods in paganism as traditionally represented, in Hinduism they represent the various forms of the one and same God.”

In Conclusion

After reading about the various spiritual paths of modern pagans, it is clear that they offer a diverse range of beliefs, traditions, and practices centered around nature and spirituality.

Each path has its own unique history and resonates with different individuals based on their personal preferences and spiritual inclinations.

It is fascinating to see how these paths have evolved and continue to be embraced by people seeking a deeper connection with the natural world and their own spirituality.

Please add your thoughts and comments below.

Magick is within you!

Blessed Be,

Bec Black


Further reading;

Connecting Hindu Gods and Humans
The Darkening Age: The Christian Destruction of the Classical World by Catherine Nixey
Paganism: A Introduction by Owen Davies
Late Antiquity by Peter Brown
Botticelli’s Birth of Venus breathes new life into an ancient religion
Is Hinduism a Pagan Religion?
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